Introduction to #FromFlintToDAPL

#FromFlintToDAPL is a collaborative effort between three Beloit College students who hope to provide a starting point for readers wanting to learn more about environmental racism in a modern context. Environmental racism is a complex issue in which People of Color are put at a greater risk of environmental hazards by those in power. It is often overlooked and downplayed as isolated issues of environmental destruction that happen to affect Communities of Color. However, it is a systematic issue that lies at the intersection of environmental destruction and racism

In this syllabus, we aim to better understand environmental racism through the examples of the Flint Water Crisis and the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL). The predominantly Black city of Flint found lead in their water after their water source was switched in 2014, and no accountability was taken by the government until 2016. In North Dakota, the construction of a dangerous pipeline was approved that posed a similar threat to the main water source of the Sioux people and many others. Additionally it was designed to go through sacred burial grounds of the Sioux people. Although on December 4, 2016, the construction at Standing Rock was halted by the Federal government, it took months of resistance and Indigenous people and sacred areas were harmed in the process.  

The syllabus moves to focusing on positionality; it is important because not all groups are equally affected by environmental racism, and many actually benefit from it. We ourselves are three white people focusing on an issue that privileges us, so we think it is important for readers to stop and acknowledge their own positionality as well, especially because environmental racism is actively erased and recreated as an environmental issue instead of something that negatively affects People of Color. We encourage readers to consider how their own identities interact with environmental racism before and while they engage with these readings.

It is important that environmental racism is recognized as a symptom of colonialism, capitalism, and racial segregation. This nation was founded through colonization, which along with environmental racism actively dominates people, land and knowledge. When Europeans colonized what is now the United States, the first groups to suffer under their mission were Africans and Native Americans, so it is no coincidence that Black people and Natives are still oppressed through capitalism and land domination. Capitalism has an inherent disregard for human life and the life of the planet, and creates a vicious cycle of environmental destruction that cannot be broken within the existence of capitalism.

Over time, racist practices and policies have segregated and subjugated different racial groups. This “spatialization of race,” whether through making cities completely segregated or through stealing Natives’ land and then forcing them onto reservations, has allowed for policy to discriminate against racial groups without being explicitly racist.  Environmental racism, like other forms of oppression, is erased through the illusion of equality and the erasure of evidence. Oppression is often perpetuated by people in power telling marginalized people that their oppression isn’t real. What this means is that when the people affected point out systems like racism, they are often told that their experiences aren’t valid or real.

Violence is hugely present in all elements of environmental racism. State violence is used regularly against People of Color within environmental racism, especially to oppress the resistance of it. Physical violence can be further damaging when media and news sources perpetuate violence by telling the story of those in power. Long term results of environmental racism can play into the downwards trajectory and cycle of health problems and state violence against People of Color.

Resistance movements form as a means of survival for People of Color facing the destruction of their basic human rights. Resistance can be made up of online organizing, activism, and the spreading of both primary source knowledge and evidence of oppression. Resistance is ultimately the oppressed rising up against their oppressor. Allies and advocates can support and assist in the movement, but the oppressive system is truly agitated when the most marginalized voices and bodies are centered.

What is Environmental Racism?

ZilY1RTX0tevilgIeVMDww_store_logo_image.jpg

Sky, Aureo. “No DAPL!” 1 November 2016. No DAPL!

Questions

  1. What role does white supremacy have in the creation and perpetuation of environmental racism?
  2. How is it significant that both Standing Rock and Flint are sites of historic discrimination?
  3. Where does environmental racism exist in your community/communities, what perpetuates and contributes to these issues?
  4. How does positionality effect how you can relate to issues of environmental racism? How are you privileged or negatively impacted by this issue due to your identities?
  5. How can you show solidarity while taking into account positionality?

Week 1: Introduction

Week 2: Positionality

Colonialism and Capitalism

103494487-RTS9KWZ.530x298.jpg

Gusovsky, Dina. “America’s Water Crisis Goes Beyond Flint, Michigan”. 24 March 2016. America’s Water Crisis Goes Beyond Flint, Michigan.

Questions

  1. How does colonialism exist in a modern context and how is it maintained as an institution?
  2. Who is affected by modern colonial projects, who benefits from them, and who maintains them?
  3. How is capitalism colonizing? How is capitalism inherently a racist institution in the United States?
  4. How does capitalism maintain white supremacy at the expense of People of Color?
  5. Can activism and change successfully occur within a capitalist structure?

Week 3: Colonialism: An Ongoing Project

Week 4: Capitalism: Money Matters But Do Lives or Land?

Land, Space, and Subjugation

screen-shot-2016-12-06-at-2-27-35-am

Hoover, Elsa. “Oceti Sakowin Oyate Territory and Treaty Boundaries 1851-present”.  National Geographic.  29 October 2016. Oceti Sakowin Oyate Territory and Treaty Boundaries 1851-present.

Questions

  1. What is the “spacialization” of race?
  2. How have Black people and Native people been “spacialized” in the US?
  3. How have Flint and Standing Rock been been racialized? What practices were used to do so?
  4. How does all of this allow for environmental racism to thrive yet go unnoticed by the mainstream?

Bennett, Michael. “Cities in the New Millennium: Environmental Justice, the Spatialization of Race, and Combating Anti-Urbanism.” Journal of African American Studies by Michael Bennett 8, no. 1 (2004): 126-141. Cities in the New Millennium: Environmental Justice

Week 5 – The Spatialization of Race in Relation to Flint and Black Communities

Week 6 – The Spatialization of Race in Relation to the Sioux and Native Communities

Destruction and Manipulation of Evidence

20160123_usp004_0

LANSING. “That Flinty Taste”. 23 January 2016. That Flinty Taste.

Questions

  1. How is evidence of oppression created, and how is it destroyed?
  2. Who gets to decide what evidence of oppression is real?
  3. How does the false sense of equality from the concept of citizenship interact with the erasure of evidence?
  4. How do colonialism and capitalism erase evidence of oppression?
  5. How can one resist the erasure of evidence? Is it preventable?
  6. How might the visibility of Flint’s water crisis have made it more known than other instances of environmental degradation?

Week 7 – Evidence

Violence

13645096_1547998388842159_1866754771046748858_n.jpg

Project Flint. “Let’s not forget about Flint, Michigan.” 10 July 2016. Let’s not forget about Flint, Michigan.

Questions

  1. How do the impacts of the violence of environmental racism build upon a history and contribute to a cycle of oppression?
  2. How can you fight back against the destruction of evidence of violence? How can you protect yourself?
  3. How do you decide which media sources to believe? How can Evidence be used to understand how Emery’s article directly contradicts David’s piece?
  4. How is the environment turned into a weapon?

Week 8 – State Sanctioned Violence

Week 9 – Intersections

Resistance

Alyssa-Schukar-NYT-Susan-Leopold-Standing-Rock-600x392.jpg

Schukar, Alyssa. “Sunrise reveals the Sacred Stone Camp.” The New York Times. 12 September 2016. Sunrise reveals the Sacred Stone Camp.

Questions

  1. How does social media function as a meaningful platform for the most marginalized voices in activism?
  2. How does social media activism address oppression in the forms of erasure of evidence and violence?
  3. What does it mean that solidarity was present for the resistance at Standing Rock but not visibly so for Flint?
  4. What does it mean that there’s a two-spirit camp at Standing Rock? How do Standing Rock’s and Flint’s resistance movements center the most marginalized? 
  5. How does grassroots activism challenge capitalism?
  6. What is your role within resistance that centers the most marginalized voices?

Week 10 – Social Media and Activism

Week 11 – Solidarity

Week 12 – Resistance